What Is a Nonjudicial Settlement Agreement in Relation to the ITC?

Web Admin - Thursday, November 07, 2019
Riverwoods estate planning lawyer trustsA trust can provide a person with the ability to protect and manage their assets and distribute them to beneficiaries either before or after their death. When a person creates a trust, they will name a trustee who will be responsible for controlling and managing the property or assets held in the trust. These appointed agents are legally required by the Illinois Trust Code (ITC) to fulfill the duties authorized to them, such as distributing possessions or managing an estate. If disputes arise between a trust’s beneficiaries, a trustee, or any other interested persons, the parties may enter into a nonjudicial settlement agreement to modify the terms of the trust. Before any actions or alterations are enacted, it is important to speak to an experienced trust attorney.  

What Can Be Resolved By a Nonjudicial Settlement Agreement 

Under the ITC, a nonjudicial settlement agreement can address the following subjects:
- The lawfulness and clarification of the terms attached to a trust.
- Approval of a designated agent’s actions.
- The powers which can or cannot be exercised by a trustee, as long as they do not conflict with the purpose of the trust.
- Concerns relating to property held by the trust if the settlement does not conflict with the purpose of the trust.
- The act of removing or appointing a trustee, advisor, or any other delegated representative of financial or nonfinancial powers. This may also include choosing a new successor trustee. 
- The financial compensation that can be provided to a trustee.
- The transfer of a trust’s principal place of administration.
- Accountability of a designated agent for his or her actions relating to the trust.
- The actions taken to resolve disputes related to the administration of the trust, the distribution of assets, or other relevant issues.
- A modification of the terms that relate to the administration of the trust. 
- If a trust is severed into two or more trusts, determination of whether the aggregate interests of each beneficiary are equivalent to their interests before severance.
- The termination of a trust, which can only occur if a court finds that the continuance of the trust is not necessary to achieve the trust’s purpose.

Contact a Long Grove Trusts Attorney

Before the ITC is enacted on January 1st, 2020, it is critical for trust settlors, trustees, and beneficiaries to discuss any possible changes that may need to take place. In order to make sure that your rights are protected, you should work with an experienced attorney who understands the laws regarding trusts in Illinois. At Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, our Kenilworth estate planning lawyers can provide clarification in your specific situation. To schedule a free consultation, contact our office today at 847-934-6000.  

About the Author: Attorney Jay Andrew is a founding partner of Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, LLC. He is a graduate of the University of Dayton School of Law and has been practicing in estate planning, probate, trust administration, real estate law, residential/ commercial leasing, contracts, and civil litigation. Since 2005, Jay has been a Chair of the Mock Trial Committee for the Annual Northwest Suburban Bar Association High School Mock Trial Invitation which serves over 240 local Illinois students each year.



Using a Special Needs Trust to Assist a Disabled Family Member

Web Admin - Friday, August 10, 2018
Inverness estate planning trust attorneyPeople who have saved money or accumulated assets over the course of their lifetime will often want to pass these assets on to their loved ones, either before or after their death. This is especially true when family members have disabilities or other special needs. However, when providing financial assistance to these family members, it is important to make sure that doing so will not make them ineligible for the public benefits they need to meet their needs. An experienced estate planning attorney can help you protect your loved ones’ interests by establishing a special needs trust.

Benefits of a Special Needs Trust

People with mental or physical disabilities are usually able to receive government benefits such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or Medicaid. However, eligibility for these benefits is based on the income earned and assets owned by the recipient; in most cases, a recipient must own no more than $2,000 in assets, and there are also limits on the amount of income they can earn. This means that if a well-meaning family member gives them money or other assets, either through a direct gift or an inheritance, it may make them ineligible for the benefits they need. 

To avoid jeopardizing a disabled person’s ability to receive public benefits, their family members can use a special needs trust (sometimes called a supplemental needs trust). This is a type of irrevocable trust in which the assets will be placed under the control of a trustee, which could be another family member or a financial institution. The trustee will then ensure that the assets are used to provide for the beneficiary’s needs.

There are specific rules that must be followed in special needs trusts. For instance, the trust can only be used to pay for certain expenses related to the beneficiary’s care, such as the costs of medical equipment, caretakers, transportation, or educational expenses. Using funds from a trust to pay for food or housing may make a beneficiary ineligible for public aid. 

Contact a Schaumburg Trust Attorney

Since a disabled person will often need assistance throughout their entire life, it is important to ensure that trusts are set up in a way that will provide them with the resources they need for many years to come. An Arlington Heights estate planning lawyer at Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, LLC can help you create a special needs trust that meets your loved one’s needs, and we can help you address any other estate planning needs, ensuring that you can provide for your family both before and after your death. Contact us at 847-934-6000 to arrange a personalized consultation.

About the Author: Attorney Jay Andrew is a founding partner of Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, LLC. He is a graduate of the University of Dayton School of Law and has been practicing in estate planning, probate, trust administration, real estate law, residential/ commercial leasing, contracts, and civil litigation. Since 2005, Jay has been a Chair of the Mock Trial Committee for the Annual Northwest Suburban Bar Association High School Mock Trial Invitation which serves over 240 local Illinois students each year.


Two Important Benefits Provided By a Living Trust

Web Admin - Tuesday, August 07, 2018
Arlington Heights trust lawyerThe thought of planning for what should happen after one’s death is often too morbid for many people to want to consider. However, doing so is incredibly important, since you want to be sure that your wishes will be followed correctly and that your heirs will be able to receive the assets you plan to pass on to them with minimal complications. While you may think that the estate planning process begins and ends with the creation of a last will and testament, another tool that can be very powerful is a living trust. 

Trusts allow you to protect certain assets, placing them in the control of a trustee and passing them to your beneficiaries once certain requirements are met. With a living trust, you can serve as the trustee while you are still living and mentally competent, giving you control over your assets and allowing you to revoke or change the terms of the trust to meet your and your family’s needs. There are a number of benefits to using a living trust, but two of the primary advantages are:

1. Avoiding Probate

When a person dies, the executor of their estate will enter their will into probate court, which is a process that can be lengthy and expensive as the court reviews the will and approves the paying of debts and taxes and the passing of assets to beneficiaries. The will is entered into public court records, meaning that the family’s personal business is available to be viewed by anyone who wants to examine the court documents. 

A trust, on the other hand, does not have to go through the probate process. This will allow assets to be passed to beneficiaries much more quickly and with fewer complications, and it will also ensure that the details about the estate are kept private.

2. Planning for Illness or Incapacitation

In many cases, when a person becomes ill or incapacitated or is no longer able to manage their own affairs, a friend or family member is named as their legal guardian. Guardianship will often not only give a guardian control of a person’s health and personal care, but also their financial affairs. This type of situation is not ideal, but a living trust can help you avoid losing control of your finances by addressing how things should be handled if you are incapacitated. 

Your trust can specify what conditions should exist for you to be declared incapacitated or mentally incompetent, and it can name a successor trustee who will manage the trust in this situation. The trustee can ensure that you have the financial resources you need to provide for your own care, while preserving your assets to pass on to your beneficiaries after your death.

Contact a Palatine Estate Planning Attorney

If you want to know more about how to use a living trust to protect your assets and pass them to your heirs, the attorneys of Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, LLC can answer your questions and work with you to create a comprehensive estate plan. Contact a Schaumburg living trust lawyer today at 847-934-6000 to schedule a personalized consultation.

About the Author: Attorney Jay Andrew is a founding partner of Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, LLC. He is a graduate of the University of Dayton School of Law and has been practicing in estate planning, probate, trust administration, real estate law, residential/ commercial leasing, contracts, and civil litigation. Since 2005, Jay has been a Chair of the Mock Trial Committee for the Annual Northwest Suburban Bar Association High School Mock Trial Invitation which serves over 240 local Illinois students each year.


When Can a Trustee Be Held Personally Liable for Acts Done While Acting As a Trustee?

Web Admin - Tuesday, February 23, 2016

trustee held personally liable, Illinois Trust AttorneysAs a trustee, you are responsible for managing the trust and working with the beneficiaries. You have a fiduciary duty, or a legal obligation, to act solely in the interest of the beneficiaries by fulfilling the instructions of the trust as the trustor has required. A trustee must be respectful and careful, loyal, and impartial when serving as the trustee, and cannot take advantage of his or her trusted position to self-deal or glean benefits for him or herself from the trust. Developing a full understanding of what the legal obligations are as a trustee can be confusing, especially if you have limited legal experience dealing with trusts. An experienced estate planning and trusts lawyer at can assist you. 

A Breach of Fiduciary Duty Opens Trustees Up To Personal Liability

Trustees can be held personally liable for acts, or failures to act, as a trustee when the trustee does not carefully and diligently adhere to the trustee’s duties. When a trustee commits a breach of his or her fiduciary duty, the trustee opens him or herself up to liability for his or her actions taken while acting as the trustee. Examples where a trustee can be held personally liable for acts done while acting as a trustee include the following:

- A trustee may be held personally liable if there is a conflict of interest biasing the trustee’s judgment when it comes to the interests of the trust. Self-dealing, or making decisions or investments using the trust’s funds that in some way benefit the trustee either directly or indirectly will expose the trustee to liability;

- A trustee can be held personally liable for any interest and/or penalties that accrue for taxes filings that are made late. Liability exists because filing the appropriate tax forms on behalf of the trust is a responsibility that lies with the trustee. 

- A trustee could be held financially liable for losses on stock diversifications on behalf of the trust, or a failure to diversify, if losses are substantial. The trustee has an obligation to serve in the best interests of the trust beneficiaries, and failing to diversify when stocks are concentrated in a single company can lead to a significant loss in value of the trust. 

- A trustee can be held liable for commingling personal finances and the trust finances, especially in situations where the trustee is a family member to the beneficiaries. A trustee can avoid the appearance of impropriety by maintaining clear and thorough accounting records of the finances of the trust, and clear documentation regarding his or her personal finances. 

Speak with an Illinois Estate Planning Lawyer Today

If you have concerns that your trustee is in breach of his or her fiduciary duties, or if you are a trustee with concerns about a course of action for the trust you manage, please feel free to contact one of our experienced Illinois estate planning attorneys today. Our firm serves the communities of Inverness, Palatine, Schaumburg, Arlington Heights, Long Grove, Kenilworth, Riverwoods, Barrington, South Barrington, and Mount Prospect.

About the Author: Attorney Jay Andrew is a founding partner of Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, LLC. He is a graduate of the University of Dayton School of Law and has been practicing in estate planning, probate, trust administration, real estate law, residential/ commercial leasing, contracts, and civil litigation. Since 2005, Jay has been a Chair of the Mock Trial Committee for the Annual Northwest Suburban Bar Association High School Mock Trial Invitation which serves over 240 local Illinois students each year.

Source: http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/ilcs3.asp?ActID=2129&ChapterID=61

Trust Payments and the Capital Gains Tax

Web Admin - Wednesday, August 27, 2014

capital gains tax in IllinoisThe capital gains tax exists as a way for the government to tax the income that flows to investors from certain investments. In general, the capital gains tax applies to the sale of most assets other than inventory. This includes the sale of things like stocks, bonds, and real estate. The current capital gains tax rates vary depending on a person's income bracket. According to the IRS, the capital gains tax for people in the 25 percent, 28, percent, 33 percent, and 35 percent income tax brackets would be 15 percent.

People paying taxes in the highest bracket, 39.6 percent, would pay 20 percent in capital gains tax, and people in the other, lower tax brackets do not pay capital gains tax at all for most capital gains income. Additionally, the Affordable Care Act also introduced a further 3.8 percent tax on capital gains income for people earning either $200,000 a year as single filers, or $250,000 a year as married filers, which went into effect at the start of 2013.

This capital gains tax can interact with trusts in complex ways, and trustees should be aware of the issues created by the capital gains tax and trusts. First, trustees should be aware of how capital gains affects the way that they manage K-1 tax forms. Second, trustees should keep in mind the interaction between capital gains and the income distribution tax deduction that trusts are allowed to take.

K-1 Forms

K-1 forms are a type of tax form that exists to help the owners of pass through entities fill out their personal income tax returns. Pass through entities are entities like S corporations and some LLCs that do not pay taxes themselves, but instead pass the taxes on to the owners. Trusts, strictly speaking, are not actually pass through entities since the trust is responsible for paying some taxes, but the beneficiaries may also owe taxes based on distributions to them from the trust, so they often receive a K-1 form. As far as the need to report capital gains income on a K-1 form, that depends on the specifics of the trust. As a default rule, the capital gains and losses stay with the trust itself, but the trust instrument may choose to pass those along to the beneficiaries, which would result in the trustee needing to add them to the K-1 form.

Capital Gains and the Income Distribution Deduction

Capital gains may also have an effect on the trust's income distribution deduction, a tax deduction that trusts may take for amounts paid to an income beneficiary. The income distribution deduction is equal to the lesser of either (1) the distributions minus tax-exempt income or (2) the “distributable net income” minus tax exempt income. Capital gains may affect this distribution because it figures into the calculation of distributable net income under several circumstances, most commonly if the trust requires the trustee to distribute the gains to the beneficiaries.

Managing a trust is a complex task from both a legal and financial perspective. If you have questions, seek help from an experienced Illinois estate planning attorney. Our firm's skilled lawyers serve clients in many northwest suburban towns such as Inverness, Barrington, and Kenilworth.

About the Author: Attorney Jay Andrew is a founding partner of Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, LLC. He is a graduate of the University of Dayton School of Law and has been practicing in estate planning, probate, trust administration, real estate law, residential/ commercial leasing, contracts, and civil litigation. Since 2005, Jay has been a Chair of the Mock Trial Committee for the Annual Northwest Suburban Bar Association High School Mock Trial Invitation which serves over 240 local Illinois students each year.

5 Benefits to Using an Institutional Trustee

Web Admin - Tuesday, April 08, 2014

illinois trusts and estate planning attorneyTrusts are versatile, useful legal instruments that allow the grantor (the person who sets up the trust) to set aside certain money or other assets for the use of another person (the beneficiary). However, the beneficiary does not have direct access to the assets. Instead, the trust is managed by a trustee whose job it is to control the assets and use them in the beneficiary’s best interest. This makes choosing the trustee one of the most important parts of setting up a trust.

Although most individuals can serve as a trustee, Illinois law also allows for the use of an “institutional trustee.” Institutional trustees are companies, often banks, who professionally manage the trust’s assets. These companies usually do charge a fee for the services, but the companies come with several benefits:

  • - They are skilled at managing trusts;
  • - They have the ability to handle complex paperwork and recordkeeping;
  • - They provide continuity to the management of the trust;
  • - They operate free of bias; and
  • - They are regulated to prevent fraud.

Reasons to Use an Institutional Trustee

  1. 1. Experienced Administrators: Institutional trustees have experience managing trusts. This allows them to easily navigate the legal requirements for trustees. Furthermore, many trustees are responsible for investing the trust’s assets. Banks and other institutional trustees are often professional investors who will be able to handle the task better than friends or family.

  1. 2. Strong Recordkeeping: Trusts also have fairly extensive recordkeeping requirements to prevent fraud on the part of the trustee. Institutional trustees have the infrastructure in place to make sure that important documents, like tax returns, are filed on time and do not get misplaced. Furthermore, the use of an institutional trustee prevents this complex work from being pushed onto a friend or family member.

  1. 3. Management Continuity: The corporate nature of institutional trustees also allows for continuity in the trust’s management. Trusts can last for decades and decades. An individual trustee may not be physically or mentally capable of managing a trust for its entire duration. Conversely, institutional trustees have the ability to smoothly transfer trust administration from one employee to the next, allowing for steady management of the assets.

  1. 4. Unbiased Distribution: Additionally, institutional trustees can eliminate the possibility of bias that might exist with trustees who are friends or family. The company would not have any prior history with particular beneficiaries that might interfere with the fair and evenhanded use of the trust’s assets.

  1. 5. Fraud Protection: Finally, institutional trustees have fraud prevention mechanisms in place. Although everyone would like to think that their friends or family members are above reproach, cases of theft on the part of the trustee do happen. Many institutional trustees are subject to government regulation and auditing requirements that can reduce the risk of fraud on their parts.

If you are interested in setting up a trust, consult with an Illinois estate planning lawyer to tailor one to your specific situation. Our attorneys lend their experience to clients across the northwest suburban area, including in Long Grove, Riverwoods, and Kenilworth.

About the Author: Attorney Jay Andrew is a founding partner of Drost, Gilbert, Andrew & Apicella, LLC. He is a graduate of the University of Dayton School of Law and has been practicing in estate planning, probate, trust administration, real estate law, residential/commercial leasing, contracts, and civil litigation. Since 2005, Jay has been a Chair of the Mock Trial Committee for the Annual Northwest Suburban Bar Association High School Mock Trial Invitation which serves over 240 local Illinois students each year.

Five Advantages of Living Trusts Over Wills

Web Admin - Friday, January 03, 2014

By Jay Andrew
JAA@DGAALAW.COM / (847) 934-6000

When preparing for the disposition of their property after they pass on, many people often find themselves questioning what wills and living trusts are and which document would better suit their needs. Wills, governed by the Probate Act of 1975, are legal documents that a person prepares prior to their death, which specifies how the rest of the family should distribute their property and handle the other affairs. Living trusts, which are controlled by the Trusts and Trustees Act, are legal devices that allow a person of the creator’s choosing, the trustee, to handle the disposition of their property. While everyone’s situation comes with unique considerations, living trusts may provide various advantages over wills. Five of the most important advantages include:

1. Living trusts can help your family avoid dealing with long, draw-out probate proceedings. Courts use probate proceedings to tie up a person’s loose ends, distribute their property, and generally enact their will. If you use a living trust, rather than moving through the court system, the trustee can distribute the property in accordance with the trust. This means that your family will not need to bring themselves to the courthouse and deal with the fees and hassle that come along with probate proceedings.

2. Living trusts also provide more privacy than wills do. While both wills and living trusts remain private throughout your life, the probate court will look at the will after you pass on, even if there are no formal probate proceedings. That means that the will becomes a matter of public record. On the other hand, your relatives will not need to file the trust with the court, so it can stay between them.

3. Living trusts also stand a better chance of surviving a legal challenge after your death, making it more likely that your final plans will be enacted to your specifications. The extra strength from a living trust comes from your ability to keep an active eye on it during your life. Because you would stay involved with the trust’s management during your life, relatives would find it harder to prove that you were not of sound mind when making the plan.

4. Living trusts make leaving property to minor children simpler too. Because minors cannot own most property, the trustee whom you choose can manage it for them, whereas a court appointee would likely handle the management if you chose to pass the property on with a will.

5. Living trusts have further benefits in the event that you become incapacitated while alive. Ordinarily, such circumstances would require relatives to petition the court for control of your affairs, and then the court would appoint a person to manage them. With a living trust, you can appoint a successor trustee to take over management in the event that you become incapacitated.

Decisions about testamentary dispositions can be complicated and involve multiple areas of law. If you are in the process of making such decisions, contact a Palatine estate planning lawyer today. We serve many areas in the northwest suburbs including Arlington Heights, Crystal Lake and Barrington.

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